Saturday, 3 September 2011

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Hi guys,
I've stopped blogging. Instead I will update some fitness tips on my Facebook page.
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Saturday, 15 May 2010

Nutrient timing for endurance sports

Nutritional guidelines for endurance athletes (part 4)

Generally, pre-competition meals

• Should be taken 3 to 4 hours prior to competition.

• Select food that you normally eat. Do not experiment or try new food at this time as you might not used to it and get absorption or GI tract problem.

• Avoid food that will produce gases or will cause rapid bowel movement (e.g. food that is high in fiber should be avoided at this time)

Night before:

• Take in large amount of carbohydrate (aka carbo loading) to spare the glycogen store of your muscle. [8 to 10g/kg of body weight]

• Can start your carbo loading 3 days before competition.

• Pasta and rice are choices that you should consider

3 to 4 hours before competition:


• Carbs: 3 to 4 g/kg of BW

• Low fat protein, low fiber & low fat food

• Plenty of fluids

2 hours before competition:


• Carbs: 2g/kg of BW

• Low fat protein, low fiber & low fat food

• Plenty of fluids

1 hour before


• Carbs: 1 g/kg of BW

• Easy to digest carbs (e.g. concentrated carbohydrate drinks and gel)

• Avoid protein, fat and fiber

Immediate before

• Take sports drinks

During exercise

Up to 60 minutes of exercise: cool water only

Over 60 minutes: electrolytes (sodium and potassium)

Over 90 minutes: water in carbohydrates supplements. Carbohydrate content should contain between 5 and 8% carbohydrate.

* For instance, if your water weighted 100g. Then add in 5 to 8g of glucose.

Post-competition (immediately after competition)


• 50 to 75g hi GI carbs (e.g. glucose)

• 10 to 15g of high quality easily digest protein (e.g. whey protein powder)

• 0.5 L of fluids for every 0.45 kg weight lost during exercise

*weight you self before competition and after competition. The weight lost will be due to sweating (dehydration)

• Sodium-containing fluids if exercise under hot weather

* Make sure you keep your body hydrated throughout the competition. Take a sip of water every 20 minutes. Do not drink only when you are thirsty. Research shows that humans only replace 66% of fluids lost through sweating by relying on thirst alone.

* Losses of 2% of BW can lead to impaired performance
   Losses of 3 to 5% may results in cardiovascular strain
   Losses of 7+% may lead to collapse

Fitness Innovations (Thailand). (2010). Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS). Thailand: Fitness Innovations.

Nutritional guidelines for endurance athletes (part 3)


Athlete profile: A male endurance athlete weighted 65kg (height 171cm) who cycling 3 times a week, 3 hours each time at a moderate intensity. In addition, he does 2 session of resistance training at moderate intensity.

Thus he need about 104g to 117g of protein, 422.5g to 650g of carbs and about 113g to 135g of fats. In total, he will need to take in about 3700 kcal.

Ideally, this caloric amount should be spread into 5 small meals throughout the whole day. In other words, he will be taking about 740 kcal for a meal.

An example of 740kcal meal should be like this:

Orange juice 355ml - 180 kcal [C: 45]

Bagel (whole wheat), 116g - 300 kcal [C:64, P:15, F:2.5]

2 Egg (hard boiled) - 162 kcal [P: 14, F:11.6]

Olive oil, 1 tbsp – 120kcal [F:14]

*C: carbs; P: protein; F: fats

Total calories: 762 kcal
C: ~52% ; P: 15.2%; F: 33.2%

Nutritional guidelines for endurance athletes (part 2)

A male endurance athlete weighted 65kg (height 171cm) who cycling 3 times a week, 3 hours each time at a moderate intensity. In addition, he does 2 session of resistance training at moderate intensity.

From the calculation of the previous post, this athlete need:

Protein: 104g to 117g
Carbs: 422.5g to 650g
Fats: 113g to 135g

Another way of calculating your daily caloric intake is through the formula below:

Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) aka Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR):

Men: 88.362 + 4.799 (height in cm) + 13.397 (weight in kg) – 5.677 (age)

Female: 447.593 + 3.098 (height in cm) + 9.247 (weight in kg) – 4.33 (age)

* RMR is the minimal energy requirement needed to maintain our body functions in a waking state without having any physical activities and cognitive stimulation (i.e. bed ridden).

An athletes’ total calorie level should then be adjusted based on athlete’s physical activities.

In the case above, this male athlete’s RMR should be

88.362 + 4.799 (171) + 13.397 (65) – 5.677 (22) = 1654.9 kcal

The calories expenditure for a cyclist weighted 65kg who cycles at a moderate intensity (12 to 13.9mph) is 519.4 kcal. Assuming he is cycling for 3 hours at a constant speed, then he would uses 1558.2 kcal.

In addition, he will also be using energy to perform some daily activities (e.g. walking, stairs climbing, etc.). I will allocate 500 kcal for his ADL (activities of daily living).

From these, theoretically, he will need 1654.9 + 1558.2 + 500 = 3713.1kcal

Nutritional guidelines for athletes (part 1)

You are involved in sports but have no idea on how much protein, carbohydrates and fats that you should eat?

The general macronutrients distribution should be of:

50 to 55% carbohydrates (of daily total caloric intake)
15 to 20% protein
25 to 30% fats

The table below will provide you a sports specific nutritional needs guidelines:



Fats: 20 o 30% of daily total caloric intake with no more than 10% from saturated fats.

Needs some explanation and demonstration?

Let’s have a look at this example:

A male endurance athlete weighted 65kg who cycling 3 times a week, 3 hours each time at a moderate intensity. In addition, he does 2 session of resistance training at moderate intensity.

Carbs needed: 65kg x 6.5 = 422.5g @ 65kg x 10 = 650g
Hence, carbs range: 422.5g to 650g

Protein needed: 65kg x 1.6 = 104g @ 65kg x 1.8 = 117g
Protein range: 104g to 117g

*In this case, 1.6 to 1.8g/kg was used because this athlete also does resistance training. If you are only doing endurance training (e.g. running, cycling, etc.), then you can cut down on the protein intake (probably to 1.2g to 1.8g/kg of body weight depends on the calories that you body needs).

*Protein intake is important in endurance athletes as they need it to maintain their muscle mass. However, most of these endurance athletes do not get enough protein from their diet. In these cases, supplementation with protein would help them in both maintaining their body weights and also sports performance.

Fats: 113g (25%) to 135g (30%)

P.S. If you need individualized nutritional advice, don’t hesitate to send me an e-mail =)

Sunday, 20 December 2009

For each day, have you ever counted how many hours you spend sitting on the chair?

Start from breakfast (if you take it. If not, then too bad!): 30 min
Traveling to office or college: 30 min to 1 hour?
Office, lecture?: 3 hours

Lunch: 30 to 45 min

Office and lecture again: 3 hours
Travelling back home: 1 to 2 hour (because of traffic jam =P)

Dinner: 1 hour
TV time!: 2 hours or more?
Sleep: 6 to 8 hours?

Remaining: yum cha and FB??

Ok, now you count it yourself. How many hours a day do we spend on moving our body and walk around. Amazing isn’t it?

Our ancestors spent time doing physical activities while we only spend time moving our fingers on the keyboard. This is called the “evolution” of the human being - to be weaker and fatter!

Would you like to do something about it now?

Tuesday, 15 December 2009

Kettlebell, TRX and rope fusion metabolic workout (15 Dec 2009)

a. double KB squat - 30s, rest 30s
b. KB long cycle clean and jerk - 30s, rest 30s
c. rope skipping - 60s, rest 60s
d. TRX low row – 30s, rest 40s
e. TRX suspended push-up and knee tuck – 40s, rest 30s
f. TRX single leg cross over squat 30s each leg

Rest between set: 3 minutes
Sets: 3 to 4